Offers Carbon Asset Development and Management under the Kyoto Protocol from offices in Hong Kong, China, India, Chile and Brazil.


What is Climate Change?

Climate change is a change in the "average weather" that a given region experiences. Average weather includes all the features we associate with the weather such as temperature, wind patterns and precipitation.

When we speak of climate change on a global scale, we are referring to changes in the climate of the Earth as a whole. The rate and magnitude of global climate changes over the long term have many implications for natural ecosystems.

As human societies adopt increasingly sophisticated and mechanized lifestyles, the amounts of heat-trapping gases in the atmosphere have been increased. By increasing the amount of these gases, humankind has enhanced the warming capability of the natural greenhouse effect. It is the human-induced enhanced greenhouse effect that causes environmental concern. It has the potential to warm the planet at a rate that has never been experienced in human history.

 What are Greenhouse Gases?

6 Key Green House Gases


1.  CO2: Carbon Dioxide Fossil fuel, combustion, deforestation, agriculture.
2.  CH4:Methane Agriculture, land use change, biomass burning, landfills.
3.  N20: Nitrous Oxide Fossil fuel combustion, agriculture industry.
4.  HFCs: Hydro fluoro carbons Industrial activity/manufacturing
5.  PFCs: Per fluoro carbons Industrial activity/manufacturing
6.  Sulphur Hexa Fluoride Electricity transmission, manufacturing.
Why do greenhouse gas emission reductions have value?
Meeting the Kyoto emission targets will require public and private investments. Many industrialized governments that have ratified the Protocol have already begun implementing domestic policies and regulations that will require emitters to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, according to the established targets. So far, experience has shown that the cost of reducing one ton of carbon dioxide (a greenhouse gas) can cost from $15 up to $100 in industrialized countries.
By contrast, there are many opportunities to reduce greenhouse gases in developing countries at a cost of $1 to $4 per ton of carbon dioxide. Hence, an emission reduction that was achieved at a lower cost has value to a public or private entity in an industrialized country that is required by regulation to reduce its emissions.
What types of renewable energy projects should be eligible for carbon trade?

The Political Declaration of the Bonn International Conference for Renewable Energies 2004, that was discussed and adopted by ministers and government representatives from 154 countries, acknowledged that "in the context of Renewable 2004, renewable energy sources and technologies include: solar energy, wind energy, hydropower, biomass energy including biofuels and geothermal energy," with no distinction with respect to scale. This is consistent with the discussions that took place at the World Summit on Sustainable Development held in 2002.

A shortage of access to energy is recognized as one of the great obstacles to development, impeding business activity and disproportionately affecting the poor who have traditionally the least access. Many OECD countries have developed more than 80% of the potential of their economically-viable hydropower, and hydropower development has been a vital platform for economic growth. This is in contrast to 20% in developing countries as a whole, and under 5% in African countries. Developing countries themselves have repeatedly stressed the importance they attach to utilizing this large domestic source of energy, particularly when oil prices are increasing by the day.

Is the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) letting the North off the hook for their carbon reduction obligations and what's in it for the South?

Industrialized countries have to implement domestic policies and measures to reduce green house gas emissions. These domestic measures have to generate the most significant part of the emission reductions used by an industrialized country to achieve its compliance targets according to the Kyoto Protocol, and emissions reductions earned through CDM and other market mechanisms can only be supplementary to these domestic actions.

It is estimated that the cost to meet emission reduction commitments made under the Kyoto Protocol is in the order of billions of dollars. Given that they reduce cost of compliance, flexible mechanisms such as the Clean Development Mechanism are relevant to the long-term engagement of the global community to combat global climate change.

For developing countries, the Clean Development Mechanism represents an opportunity to attract investments from the public and private sectors in climate-friendly technologies, and to contribute to the global combat on climate change. In order to be eligible, CDM projects have to be above and beyond business-as-usual, and must contribute to sustainable development as defined by the host country (developing country). Participation in the Clean Development Mechanism is entirely voluntary.

Which countries are engaged in the Kyoto Protocol?

With the entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol on February 16, 2005, more than one hundred and forty countries agree to work together to fight global climate change. The thirty six industrialized countries that ratified the Protocol - namely Canada, Japan, members of the European Union, as well economies in transition from Central and Eastern Europe - agree to put in place policies and measures to collectively reduce 5 percent of their emissions between2008 to 2012 as measured against 1990 levels. To meet this binding commitment, industrialized countries have the option to reduce part of their emissions domestically, and they can also emission reductions from developing countries (through the Clean Development Mechanism), or from countries with economies in transition (through Joint Implementation or International Emissions Trading).

List of Annex 1 & Non Annex 1 Countries
Parties in alphabetical order
Austria Belarus
Bulgaria Canada
Czech Republic Denmark
European Economic Community Finland
Germany Greece
Iceland Ireland
Japan Latvia
Lithuania  Luxembourg
Netherlands New Zealand
Poland Portugal
Russian Federation Slovakia
Spain Sweden
Turkey Ukraine
United States of America (Not Ratified)
Parties in alphabetical order
Albania Algeria Angola
Argentina Armenia
Bahamas Bahrain
Barbados Belize
Bhutan Bolivia
Botswana Brazil
Burundi Cambodia
Cape Verde Central African Republic
Chile China
Colombia Comoros Congo
Cook Islands Costa Rica C�te d'Ivoire
Cuba Cyprus Democratic People's Republic of Korea
Democratic Republic of the Congo Djibouti Dominica
Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt
El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea
Ethiopia Fiji Gabon
Gambia Georgia Ghana
Grenada Guatemala Guinea
Guinea Bissau Guyana Haiti
Honduras India Indonesia
Iran (Islamic Republic of) Israel Jamaica
Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya
Kiribati Kuwait Kyrgyzstan
Lao People's Democratic Republic Lebanon Lesotho
Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Madagascar
Malawi Malaysia Maldives
Mali Malta Marshall Islands
Mauritania Mauritius Mexico
Micronesia (Federated States of) Mongolia Morocco
Mozambique Myanmar Namibia
Nauru Nepal Nicaragua
Niger Nigeria Niue
Oman Pakistan Palau
Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay
Peru Philippines Qatar
Republic of Korea Republic of Moldova Rwanda
Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe
Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia and Montenegro
Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore
Solomon Islands South Africa Sri Lanka
Sudan Suriname Swaziland
Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Thailand

The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

Togo Tonga
Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkmenistan
Tuvalu Uganda United Arab Emirates
United Republic of Tanzania Uruguay Uzbekistan
Vanuatu Venezuela Viet Nam
Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe