Offers Carbon Asset Development and Management as per Kyoto Protocols in Hong Kong, China, India, Chile, UK and France.


Energy Efficiency
Energy conservation practices have acquired top priority in the present context of increasing energy prices, acute energy shortage and the ever-widening demand supply gap. A multi-pronged approach is advocated for achieving energy conservation. This approach comprises of pursuing or adopting the three-pronged approach: 
Capacity Utilization: Involves optimally utilizing the available resources. This is a least cost option.
Fine Tuning: Incorporating small change in the existing system to get major gains in energy efficiency.
Technological Up gradation: Can result in mega savings in energy.
Capacity Utilisation & Fine Tuning can result in energy savings to the tune of 5 - 15%, while Technology Upgradation can result in Energy savings upto 30 - 40%.

The contribution of co-generation plants to a reduction in primary energy consumption will be important not only in lowering emissions to the atmosphere but also in cutting production costs by increasing the overall efficiency of fuel conversion to the electricity and heat used by process industries. The importance of the interactions of the utility needs of a process with the development and design of a cogeneration system is of importance to maximize fuel efficiency and achieve environmental compliance for a chemical plant. Co-generation projects imply the rational use of energy and water, the reduction of wastes and a better design of the production system. The industries that can venture into co-generation are paper, sugar, chemical processing industries, metallurgy& oil refining.

Steps in the development of co-generation projects
  • Step 1 Process analysis
  1. Identify the minimum requirements 
  2. Obtain reliable balances from reconciliation of plant measurements
  • Step 2 Energy targets
  1. Minimum energy required
  2. Potential savings
  3. Tracks for improvements
  4. Technology needed (e.g. combined heat and power production)
  • Step 3 Design solutions
  1. Process structure
  2. Evaluation of investments
  • Step 4 Evaluation
  1. Technical feasibility (operability)
  2. Economic evaluation
Waste Heat Recovery
The production of semi-finished steel in an integrated steel plant is a very energy intensive process. The Direct Reduced Iron (DRI) kilns are at the heart of this steel billet manufacturing process. These DRI kilns produce a lot of hot gases with significant heat content. These gases can be recovered through a Waste Heat Recovery Boiler (WHRB) and the steam produced can be used to generate electricity. This electricity can be consumed internally (Captive Power Generation) or exported to the grid.
Renewable energy
Renewable Energy (RE) presents environmental advantages and allows for the preservation of rapidly diminishing fossil resources. RE has numerous applications across a wide range of sectors such as power generation, energy-intensive industries, transport, construction and even non-commercial applications such as those for domestic purposes. 
Methane Recovery
Methane (CH4) occurs in a variety of settings. For example, in landfills, methane is generated by the anaerobic decomposition of waste; in coal mines, methane is generated as a by-product of the coal mining process. Unless the emissions from these operations are controlled, the methane is emitted to the atmosphere and contributes to global climate change. Because methane is a powerful greenhouse gas, its collection and combustion can lead to the creation of carbon credits.
There are many options available in terms of making productive use of methane gas: it can be used to generate electricity if the gas collected is supplied to a generator instead of to a flare system for combustion. Methane can also be used in vehicles after purification. Alternative uses of the gas can be explored, including as a replacement for fuels in certain industries.

Bio-methanation refers to the production of bio-methane or biogas from the decomposition of organic material. This biogas is rich in methane with a typical composition of 60%-75% methane, 40%-25% water and some trace gases like Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S). The methane content of the gas reflects the calorific value and depending on the process employed for the production of the same, both the rate of biogas production and its calorific value can be significant for highly efficient energy production. 
At CMC we are conducting projects on production of heat and energy from sewage, food wastes, animal wastes and the like. These projects have resulted in abatement of GHG emissions and also more hygienic environments in the rural communities.

CER generation potential of bio-methanation projects
For a typical project on a wastewater treatment plant treating 2 MLD combining Anaerobic and Aerobic treatment with the following characteristics,
Employing an Anaerobic digestor (USAB) for the production of Biogas
Average biogas production = 8500 M3/day 
Average Methane content of biogas = 60-70% 
Average Calorific value of biogas = 5500 Kcal/M3
Average energy production = 46.8 x 106 Kcal/d 
This is approximately equivalent to 8.4 MU of electricity per year! 
Typically, a wastewater treatment plant employing an anaerobic system processing 1 MLD of wastewater can generate about 8000-10000 CERs per year. 
There are many sources of reduction of any category of GHG emissions in agricultural activities. 
Some examples are:
  1. Energy efficiency improvements or switching to less carbon intensive energy sources for water pumps.
  2. Methane reduction in rice cultivation
  3. Using produced animal waste for energy generation
Land use, land use change and forestry (LULUCF)

The UNFCCC defines a "sink" as "any process, activity or mechanism which removes a greenhouse gas, an aerosol or a precursor of a greenhouse gas from the atmosphere". The development of the policy on "sinks" has evolved to cover emissions and removals of greenhouse gases resulting from land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF). 
Activities in the LULUCF sector can provide a relatively cost-effective way of combating climate change, either by increasing removals of greenhouse gases from the atmosphere (e.g. by planting trees or managing forests), or by reducing emissions (e.g. by curbing deforestation). There are drawbacks, however, since it may be often difficult to calculate greenhouse gas removals and emissions from LULUCF. In addition, greenhouse gases may be unintentionally re-released if a sink is damaged or destroyed.